Bade – Ch. 1 – Origin of the Settlers


< Table of Contents         >Next Chapter


The Hollanders, of the Holland settlement of southeastern Nebraska, came from the provinces of Gelderland and Zeeland in the Netherlands. Their emigration from the fatherland occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century. To understand their background we must have a brief description of their native land and the two provinces mentioned above during the Victorian Era.

We are aware of this little country over in Europe, hardly large enough to make one good state on this side of the ocean, but full of people possessing sturdy characters and thrifty habits. The population of the Netherlands, although at the present, manifesting a strong national unity, is ons of the most complex in Europe. In the eleven provinces which comprise the Netherlands, there are differences in scenery, race, dialect, and religion, and, therefore, in features and characteristics of the people.[1] Dutch folk are known the world over for the quaintness of their costumes, the wooden shoes, their baggy trousers, and the little caps worn by the women.[2] For three hundred years the style of dress for both men and women has remained the same.[3]

The Netherlands, one of the smallest countries in Europe, is conspicuous for the density of its population. Its area is only 12,648 square miles. The population was 7,731,000 in 1928.[4] In area, it compares closely with the State of Maryland; or it is only one‑sixth the size of Nebraska, with a population six tímes as great. In 1830, the population was 2,613,500; in 1859, it was 3,580,000; in 1913, it was around 6,000,000 and in 1928, around 7,000,000.[5] This increase is probably due chiefly to the decrease in death rata and the immigration of refugees in the late war.[6] The increasing population, however, produced a heavy pressure upon the resources of the country. In order to relieve this pressure it has been necessary to provide new space. This was done either by reclamation of its territory or by means of emigration.[7]

Three‑fourths of Holland is farmed and almost one‑half of this amount is in meadows and pastures.[8] Only 2.11% of the farms in 1921 had an area of more than 100 hectares (200 acres).[9] Over 50% of the farms have less than 10 acres.[10] In 1921, no less than 56% of the farms were managed by the owners.[11] Until recently, on account of its geographical position and the nature of the soil, the industries were mainly agriculture, cattle breeding, and commerce.

For the Hollander, there is a great lack of faith in everything, especially in business matters. He will risk nothing. For four cents outlay he must be quite certain of six cents in return. The Dutchman believes so thoroughly in comfortable stability, that, given a modest income which he has inherited or gained, he will not only refuse to go a penny beyond it in his expenditures, but often will live very much below it. He would never think of “living up to” his income. His idea is to leave his children sometring very tangible in the shape of “gulden” (Dutch coin). A small income and little or no work is far more agreeable a prospect to him than a really busy life allied to a large income.[12] This charactaristic is quite apparent among the Hollanders of the Nebraska settlement of today.

The Dutchmen are patriotic, and the homage they pay to their Queen is simple and reserved. The “man on the street” has scarcely ever wavered in his simple personal affection for his sovereign. This same loyalty has always been demonstrated in their newly adopted country. They have always been obedient and patriotic.

The Dutch are hospitably inclined. They will take their friends home with them for potluck dinner without any regular preparation, or even a word of warning to their wives. This practice is in striking contrast with other countries, where the madam would never forgive her husband for such an indiscretion. This is due, no doubt, to the simple fact that a dinner in Holland is always as good as the status and circumstance of the host will allow. It is never a scratch meal and, therefore, a visitor is not regarded as an intruder, for he finds the Dutch family always at its best.[13]

The Dutch woman, generally speaking, is not the “new woman,” in the sense of taking any very definite part in the politics of the country. Neither does she interest herself in, nor interfere in, ecclesiastical matters. Dutchmen have not a very high opinion of the mental and administrative qualities of their women folk outside of what is considered there sphere. This characteristic was also vividly apparent among the Dutch pioneers of the Nebraska settlement, especially during their annual church meetings. The Dutch women do not take any active part in daily questions. Their interests are almost entirely academic. They are kind mothers, thrifty housewives, and very fond of their “man.”[14]

The character of the people is reflected in what they have accomplished. They do not attach great importance to charm, humor, wit, or pomp. They have no great inclination for theatres, cabarets, operas, or concerts. They are contented with their homes and have a liking for money in the bank, and care very little for display. They are contented with small comforts and small pleasures.[15]

The position of this small country with a large overseas empire reflects the character of its people, who, with a graat exertion have secured their place in the social and economic world. Much more could be said, relative to the country in general which would help to make a complete picture, but a fuller description than that which has been given is unnecessary for our purpose. However, a description of the customs and habits of Gelderland and Zeeland is necessary, as it was from these two provinces that the pioneers in the Nebraska settlement emigrated.

Gelderland, a province in the eastern part of the Netherlands, has an area of 1,940 square miles and a population of 829,293. The density per square mile is 411.[16] Zeeland, a province in the southwestern part of the Netherlands, bas an area of 707 square miles. In 1930, it had a population of 247,606 and, of all the other provinces, only Utrecht is smaller.[17]

These two provinces are within the same country, and under the same government, yet are distinctly unlike in topography, dialect, habits, customs, and costumes. These provinces are so unlike in dialect that Mrs. Ed Vermaas, who emigrated from Gelderland says, “It was very difficult for me to understand my husband’s parents who had emigrated from Zeeland.”[18]

Zeeland is one of the most conservative provinces of the Netherlands. The inhabitants retained the old customs and costumes for which Holland is celebrated. They have not seemed to be bitten by the crave for modernity, which, unfortunately, is rapidly changing the face of the country in other parts.[19] Perhaps, because it is surrounded by water and isolated from the rest of the world, Zeeland has kept its customs and costumes, more nearly unchanged than any other part of the Netherlands.

The Dutch klompen or wooden shoes have survived not only in Zeeland but in Gelderland and the other provinces. They are everyone’s wear in the land. No one wears them in the house. When they take them off in the public meeting places they are only following a custom which is religiously adhered to at home. There are always rows of them of different sizes, colors, and shapes along the front of the house.[20] It is said, that when a Hollander enters his barn from the outside, he leaves his wooden shoes at the door.[21]

Zeeland, which of course means “Sea Land,” is well named, for it is more amphibious than any other land on earth. It is really nothing but a series of low islands, separated by wide estuaries. It can never consider the ocean with indifference or contempt.[22] The geographic character of Zeeland is in itself unique. The slices of land constituting the province have been reclaimed from the North Sea, and are only kept above water by vigilant industry.[23] Here in Zeeland, maintenance of the dykes is even more important than in the other provinces. It is a question of life and death. At high tide all Zeeland is under water. If a dyke be broken the island would vanish. Very little of the entire surface is above sea level. It is formed by the accumulated alluviums from the rivers. The soil being very rich in texture, no artificial fertilizer is needed for farming.[24] Thus, a great deal of manure is transported from Zeeland to other provinces. The manure is stored in large cement vats, sold by the square foot, and shipped in steamers.[25]

The differences in topography between these two provinces is exceedingly great. Mr. Ed Vermaas, who had spent many years farming in the West says, “It is similar to that of Colorado and Nebraska. Ditches were made in Zeeland to rid the land of excess water, while in America they were dug to allow the water to reach the arid parts. Thís contrast may well be applied to Zeeland and Gelderland.[26]

Zeeland is a smiling country, and the people here seem brighter and less stolid than their compatriots elsewhere. Its people are strong and well‑made, living contentedly in their prosperity and peace. “Zeeland is a hidden Paradise.”[27]

Gelderland’s soil is less fertile than many of the other provinces of the Netherlands. Gelderland being less fertile, finds it necessary to import large quantities of the elaborate dressing and manure to make the artificial soil in which its produce is grown.[28] It is from Gelderland and the villages of Winterswijk and Aalten that many of the pioneers emigrated to Nebraska.[29]

A great effort is made to produce a large amount of manure. Cattle are permitted to graze only two hours in the morning and two hours in the afternoon. The remaining part of the day the cattle are kept in the barn well bedded. Much care is taken to preserve this material.[30] A great deal of the manure is transported from Zeeland where they have no need for it.

The occupations of Zeeland and Gelderland, like other provinces of the Netherlands, are developed under the combined influences of the climate and the peculiar character of the land. Their occupations are chiefly agriculture, cattle breeding, and dairy farming, while fishing and commerce are important in Zeeland.[31]

Agriculture is assisted materially by the Dutch government. Since 1898, there has been a Director‑General of Agriculture. Scientific agricultural methods have converted a poor soil into one of the most fertile and productive regions of Europe. The soil is almost all artificial, being either the product of reclamation or fertilization.[32] Potatoes, vegetables, bulbs, fruits, and beet‑roots make up the greater part of the exports of Gelderland and Zeeland. No grain is exported as neither of these provinces produce enough for home consumption.[33]

Most of the early pioneers of the Dutch settlement in Nebraska were either peasant farmers or farm laborers in their native country. A few had other occupations with their farming. Among these there was a carpenter, a match maker, a cement worker, a shoemaker, and three weavers.[34] Since agriculture was their predominant vocation, I shall describe their habits and customs in this station of life.

The lot of the farmer in Gelderland was very different from that of those who possess the juicy pasture land of other provinces of Holland. Here the few patches of grass were treasured for the small crop of hay, which was carefully preserved for the winter months.[35] The cows, when they were fortunate enough to get an airing, were led out one at a time by a piece of rope tied to the horns, to graze on the small patches of grass. This task was performed by the children of the natives.[36]

Often as many as three crops were planted on one piece of ground in one year. In the fall rye was sown and when this was reaped, a fertilizer was applied and the ground plowed and prepared for the second crop. The second crop consisted either of turnips or beet roots. In the fall, this crop was gathered and again the same preparations were applied for the planting of rye.[37] Farming in Gelderland, as in other parts of Europe, was carried on in an obsolete way. After the ground was prepared all the work was done by hand. The weeding was done by means of a three‑cornered hoe. The harvesting of the grain was done by means of a scythe. The threshing was done by flailing.[38]

The Dutch peasant had a long day. Hours of labor begon early in the morning and continued late in the evenmg. The Dutch farmers had little time for recreation.[39] Holland is still a country of long hours. The work is not put through at anything like our high speed. The interests, the worries, and successes of their workaday life are shared by the whole household more intimately than our families in America.

The farm houses in most parts of the country are neat. Outside, their appearance is very quaint and picturesque. The roofs are either thatched or tiled. The farm house was generally divided into two parts-‑the back part for the cattle and the other animals or fowls which the family might possess. In the center was a large open place where the carts were kept. The fore part, separated from the barn by a door, is a large living room. This was the dwelling place of the farmer, his wife, and family. When the family became too large and over­flowed the sleeping accommodations of this room, a place for the children was made available in the cow‑barn.[40]

In some of the farm houses there was no partition at all between the stable and the living room, but the cattle were kept at the back and the people lived at the other end, near the window. This was called the Loshuis or open house.[41] In some cases, leading from the stable into the living room is a door with a small window to enable the farmer to see what is going on among his animal friends in the barn.[42] The smell of the cow is considered to be extremely healthful and consumptive patients have been completely cured (so it is believed) by sleeping in these barns.[43] Emile de Lavelye made a study of Dutch agriculture fifty years ago, the ínformation he supplied is still sound and accurate:

The success of Dutch farming is based on scrupulous cleanliness, attention to sanitary conditions, and the personal control by the proprietor or farmer. When the cattle are stalled in the barn which forms a part of the farmhouse, only separated by a thin partition, and, as in some cases by no partition at all, the cattle are washed, combed, and littered with the greatest of care. Their stalls are cleaned out several times a day and the floor is carefully kept sanded. This makes the nearness of the cattle to the residence not merely possible, but free from disagreeability and it conduces to the health of the animal.[44]

This peculiar arrangement seems odd to the reader, but seeing and experiencing these conditions not only in Netherlands, but in other European countries, convinces one that the cleanliness of the Dutch cow‑barn ranks higher than elsewhere.

Against the wall which formed the partition between the stable and the living room is the fireplace. Most of these Dutch farmers had open fireplaces, as they could not afford a stove.[45]

The living room in every sense of the word is the living room, for the family worked, ate, and slept there.[46] Mr. Henry Wíeskamp stated, “the living room in our home was used as a kitchen, parlor, and bedroom. It was scantily furnished, but mother always took great pains in keeping it immaculately clean and tidy.”[47] The interior of these homes differed little from that in other provinces. In Gelderland, instead of a floor of planks, there was a pavement of rough broken varicoloured bricks.[48] The mantle of the fireplace was in the shape of a large overhanging hood, with a flounce of light printed cloth around it. Usually the mantle was adorned by a row of plates or other china.[49] Some of the houses had no chimneys, the smoke found its way out between the tiles of the roof or through the door. The houses that had chimneys, however, the Dutch farmers hung their meat in them, so that when looking up through the wide opening numerous dangling sausages would meet one’s gaze.[50]

Coffee is the most typical drink in the Netherlands.[51] This is also true for the Hollanders in the Nebraska settlement. In the Netherlands, coffee is the drink, and bread, butter, and cheese is the body of the lunch.[52] There is also a green cheese made from sheep milk, the flavor of which is not very pleasant to the American taste. Yet the Dutch in their native land and even in the Nebraska settlement are very fond of this type of cheese.

The meals were cooked in a large iron pot, which hung from a hook over the open hearth. The daily food was often of the strangest mixtures. When the pig was killed, and the different parts for hams, sides of bacon, etc., had been stored and the sausage made, a bloodworst or blood pudding was made from the blood of a pig.[53] A thick fatty substance remained in the bottom of the pot, after the bones were cooked. This they thickened with buckwheat meal till it formed a porridge, and then they ate it with a piece of fat meat. This dish was called balkenbry.[54] Another favorite dish, especially in Gelderland, was kruidmoes. This was a mixture of buttermilk boiled with buckwheat meal, or rye flour. Often with this, a huge piece of smoked bacon was served.[55] The rye or black bread took the place of white and was generally homemade. The bread called boren‑mik was a delicious long brown loaf. There were always a few raisins mixed with the dough to keep it from getting stale. The crusts are very hard and difficult to cut, but inside the bread is soft and palatable.[56] Mr. Henry Wieskamp states, “Usually we had deep plates and ate with wooden spoons. Often, howe­ver, plates were not used but the stewpot was placed in the center of the table, around which we would all gather and help ourselves. All of us eating out of the same pot.”[57]

Here we have the home of the Dutch peasant, who lives contentedly in his environment. To describe an “average Dutch peasant” would be to say very little of him. There is far too much difference in this class of people all over the Netherlands to allow any generalization. The Frisian peasant would feel quite a stranger in Gelderland and Zeeland, as well as in other provinces. They not only differ in costume but they speak an entirely different dialect. A few have emigrated from this province to the Nebraska settlement and as one has said when interviewed, “I am not a Hollander, I am a Frisian.”[58] The life of the peasant, however, is much more uniform in character, in spite of the many differences in costumes and in dialect. The Dutch peasant is a peasant, and does not mix with the townsmen except in the way of business. He brings his garden and farm products to the village sale, and as soon as that is effected he hurries back to his home.[59]

As for the Dutch peasant women, they have certainly not changed since the foundation of the Dutch Republic. They have remained the type and ideal of the “domestic vrouw,” now out of fashion in other countries. In the old houses and the primitive farms of the eleven provinces the toil of women goes on–polishing, scrubbing, baking, sewing, and cooking, without any thought of amusement.[60] The women in­variably helped with the lighter work of weeding the field, while in harvest time they worked as hard as the men. When the harvest was gathered, the men’s chief labor was over, even though the manuring of the land and other duties about the farm had to be performed. The women’s or vrouws‘ work, however, was never done. While the men smoked, the women spun the flax grown on their own ground, and the wool, either produced on their own farm or purchased from those who had sheep.[61]

Sometimes the women met together at some neighbor’s house to spin. There is a similar custom in Czechoslovakia where women meet for the purpose of stripping feathers, called the “stripping party.” The Dutch lunch, called the spinning meal, was the big event of the evening. This con­sisted of Coffij Koechen (coffee cake) and coffee. When the linen was woven it was rolled up and kept in the linen press. This was the huisvrouw’s (house‑woman’s) pride. Much of this fine linen, the Dutch pioneers brought with them from their native country.[62] Mr. Henry Vanderbeek, Sr. was one of the Dutch pioneer weavers, who in his native land, assisted the Dutch vrouw with her spinning.[63]

Servants, the maid and the farm laborer, had equally a full day’s share of work. In addition to helping the Mevrouw about the house, it was the duty of the maid to supervise the care of the stock. This duty not only consisted of grooming but also included nursing sick and injured animals. Many times she was required to sit up all night performing this task. Further, the maid was expected to possess a wardrobe large enough so that it would not inconvenience her from one washday to the next. The washdays ranged from three months to a year, depending upon the social status of her employer.[64]

Herbrecht Vermaas, Sr., who was one of these farm laborers, was left fatherless at the age of seven. He was forced at an early age to help make a living for the family. He found employment with a man, first as a chore boy, then was promoted to the successive stations of third, second, and finally first laborer. He remained with this same Dutchman for twenty‑three years.[65]

The Gelderlander, being a very conservative and super­stitious individual believes in the ancient customs, zodiacal signs and omens.[66] One will also find individuals in the settlement in Nebraska who firmly believe in these supersti­tions. They believe the position of the moon predicts the type of weather. A saying one will often hear is, “We will have a wet season as the moon is dipping,” When some of the Hollanders of the Dutch settlement in Nebraska butcher, they do so in the dark of the moon. They believe that the meat does not shrink nor the lard spatter, when the work is per­formed at that time. Further, during the planting season, they particularly observe the moon. A custom in the Nether­lands which was brought to this country is to have an egg eating contest at Easter. In the Netherlands, many of the children, just before Easter, pass from house to house and beg for eggs for the festival.[67]

The Dutch are a thoroughly religious people. The provinces of Limburg, Brabant and a part of Gelderland, all added to the kingdom, are solidly Roman Catholic.[68] The protestants still constitute nearly one‑half of the people, and over one‑half of these are members of the Dutch Reformed Church.[69] On Sunday morning the whole gemeente (community) goes to church, from the Burgomeister to the farm‑laborer. They must all attend if they expect to stand well with the community. They are all dressed in their “Sunday best.” The men have put aside their working clothes, and are attired in blue or black cloth suits. The women wear their black dresses and fringed shawls. The rules of the Dutch Reformed Church are con­scientiously strict. The Church is powerful in its demand. In the cool days of autumn, the women carry little boxes containing burning charcoals (stoofjes) upon which they rest their feet, for the church is illy heated. They also carry their scent bottles, peppermints, and gezangboek (song book).[70]

The men sit on one side, and the women on the other. There is a small gallery, too, where the men sit by themselves. This same arrangement was used in the church of the Nebraska settlement until within the beginring of this century. This custom, however, is changing fast in the Netherlands.[71]

The sermon is very technical. The congregation does not seem impressed. They are too stolid to show their feeling. The Heer Pastoor or the Dominee as he is called, works himself into a passion. When the sermon is finished, he seems quite out of breath, and sits down mopping bis head and face. The two collectors, or deacons, now solemnly rise and take down from the hooks two long black bags fastened on the end of long poles, and begin making a tour of the benches. This same custom took place in the Nebraska church at Holland. They ware very proficient in slipping the bags under the noses of the men and women respectively, who invariably dropped a coin or two into the open black maws. There is no visiting after the services. They depart for their homes in the same quiet manner as they arrived.[72]

Going to school in the Netherlands is very serious. They have not the games and sports which brighten school days in America. The general belief among the Dutch people is that the American schoolboys learn very little except athletics. The schools at the present time are under the supervision of the government. All teachers must pass a government examina­tion, and twice a year, at unexpected times, inspectors call to examine pupils and discover if the teachers are going good work. Children between the ages of seven and fourteen are obliged by Iaw to attend, but this law is not strictly enforced.[73] The education of these early pioneers was very limited. In the Netherlands children generally went to school until they reached the age of twelve years, and during that time were taught reading, writing, and arithmetic. As a rule, however, they did not attend very regularly as their help was so often needed in the home.[74]

The history of the Netherlands has proven the worth of the Hollander. It was of such people that the Holland settlement of Nebraska was composed.

In the middle and latter part of the nineteenth century, times for farming were bad in the Netherlands, as elsewhere in Europa. The rents were high and the wages were low. Many Dutchmen conceived the idea, that in America a better home could be made, and their families could receive a better start in life than in the crowded cities and provinces of their native country. Accordingly they disposed of their property and set sail for the United States, with Wisconsin as their goal.

Derk Liesveld, in 1847 was one of the advance guard of this movement to America. He was preceded by the Brethouwers, the Devries, and the Ten Hulzens. In 1852, the father of C. Wismer came to America and later the Wissinks, Walvoords, Lefferdinks, Vanderweges, TeSelles, and others.[75] All of these had in some measure become Americanized before coming to Nebraska.

Next Chapter
Table of Contents

[1] P.M. Hough, Dutch Life in Town and Country, (New York & London, 1902), 5.

[2] Compton’s Pictured Encyclopedia, (Chicago, 1931), 2438

[3] The World Book, (Chica­go 7 Kansas City, 1933), 4884.

[4] Hand Book for The Netherlands and Overseas Territories, Netherlands (Kingdom, 1915 ‑), Department Van buitenlandsche Zaken, (The Hague, 1931), 25.

[5] The Encyclopedia Britannica, (London & New York, 1929). II, 651;

The Americana, (Chicago & New York, 1929), 20, 90.

[6] The New International Encycl., (New York, 1922), 16, 762.

[7] Demetrius C. Boulger, Holland of the Dutch, (New York, 1913), 6.

[8] The Americana, 20, 89.

[9] Britannica, 11, 653.

[10] The World Almanac, World Telegram, Scripps ‑ Howard News Papers, New York, 1935), 681.

[11] Britannica, 11, 653

[12] Hough, op. cit., 5.

[13] Boulger, , op, cit., 51.

[14] Hough, op. cit. ,9.

[15] Marjorie Bowen, Holland, (Garden City, New York, 1929), 15.

[16] Britannica, 10, 90.

[17] Ibid., 23, 939.

[18] Personal interview with Mrs. Lydia (Meinen) Vermaas, Hickrnan, Nebr­., 1937.

[19] Nico Jungman, Holland, (London, 1904), 1.

[20] D.S. Meldrum, Home Life in Holland, (New York, 1911), 101.

[21] Personal interview with Mr. John Fisher, Hickman, Nebr., 1937.

[22] Burton E. Stevenson, The Spell of Holland, (Boston, 1911), 366.

[23] Jungman, op. cit., 1.

[24] Britannica,10, 90.

[25] Personal interview with Mr. Ed Vermaas, Hickman, Nebr., 1937.

[26] Idem.

[27] Jungman, op. cit., 4.

[28] Britannica,10, 90; Personal interview with Mr. Ed Vermaas, 1937.

[29] A general survey of the descendents of the pioneers at Holland, Nebraska, 1937.

[30] Personal interview with Mr. Henry Wieskamp, Firth, Nebr., 1937.

[31] Boulger, op. cit., 139.

[32] Bowen, op. cit. 10; Boulger, op. cit., 137.

[33] Bowen, op. cit., 10.

[34] A general survey of the descendents of the pioneers at Holland, Nebraska, 1937.

[35] Jungman, op. cit., 86.

[36] Personal interview with Mr. Ed Vermaas; Mr. Henry Wieskamp, 1937.

[37] Personal interview with Mr. Henry Wieskamp, 1937.

[38] Personal interview with Mr. Henry Heitbrink, Holland, Nebr., 1937; Mr. Henry Wíeskamp, 1937.

[39] Personal interview with Mrs. Hattie (Reimes) Onnink, Princeton, Nebr., 1937; Mrs. Lydia (Meinen) Vermaas, 1937.

[40] Hough, op. cit., 89; Jungman, op. cit. 85; Personal inter­view with Mr. John Fisher; Mr. Henry Heitbrink; Mr. Dick Wieskamp, Holland, Nebr., 1937.

[41] Hough, op. cit. 90; Personal interview with Mr. Henry Wieskamp and others, 1937.

[42] Hough, op. cit. 89

[43] Ibid., 90.

[44] Boulger, op. cit., 139.

[45] Interviews with various pioneers, 1937.

[46] Personal interview with Mr. Henry Heítbrink and others, 1937.

[47] Personal interview with Mr. Henry Wieskamp, 1937.

[48] Jungman, op. cit., 85.

[49] Hough, op. cit., 89; Personal Interview with Mr. Henry Heitbrink and others, 1937.

[50] Personal interview with Mr. Henry Heitbrink, 1937.

[51] Personal interview with Mrs. Frank Vermeer, Hickman, Nebr., 1937; Mr. John Fisher and others, 1937.

[52] D. S. Meldrum, op, cit., 46.

[53] Personal interview with Mr. Henry Wieskamp, 1937; Hough, op. cit., 94.

[54] Personal interview with Mrs. Lydia (Meinen) Vermaas, 1937.

[55] Idem.

[56] Personal interview with Mr. Ed Vermaas, 1937.

[57] Personal interview with Mr. Henry Wieskamp, 1937.

[58] Personal interview with Mr. William Dykstra, Firth, Nebr., 1937.

[59] Hough, op. cit., 83.

[60] Bowen, op. cit., 223; Personal interview with Mrs. Hattie (Reimes) Onnink, 1937.

[61] Personal interview with Mrs. Frank Vermeer and others, 1937.

Hough, op. cit., 86.

[62] Personal interview with Mrs. Frank Vermeer, 1937.

[63] Personal interview with Mr. Garret Vanderbeek, Panama, Nebr. , 1937.

[64] Personal interview with Mrs. Lydia (Meinen) Vermaas and others, 1937.

[65] Personal Interview with Mr. Ed Vermaas, 1937.

[66] Personal interview with Mr. John Fisher; Mr. Henry Heitbrink, 1937.

[67] Personal interviews with members who emigrated from the Netherlands, 1937.

[68] Boulger, op. cit.,149; Hough, op. cit., 237.

[69] The World Book, 4886.

[70] George Wharton Edwards, Marken and Its People, (New York, 1912), 146.

[71] Idem.; Personal interviews with various Hollanders in the Dutch settlement in Nebr., 1937.

[72] Personal interview with John Fisher; Henry Heitbrink and others, 137; Edwards, op, cit., 146.

[73] Hough, op. cit., 154.

[74] Interviews with various descendants of the pioneers at Holland, 1937.

[75] Portrait and Biographical Album of Lancaster County, Nebraska, Chapman Brothers, (Chicago, 1888), 320, 372, 560; Plat Book of Lancaster County, Nebr., 101; Sawyer, op. cit., II, 571; Personal interview with Mr. Ben Brethouwer, 1937; A general survey of descendants of pioneers mentioned above.